Diagram V by Newmark (1988:45)

Newmark on the books A Textbook of Translation (1988) proposed 8 types of translation method, as illustrated in the following diagram V;

SL Emphasis                                                                                               TL Emphasis
Word-for-word Translation                                                            Adaptation
        Literal Translation                                                              Free Translation
             Faithful Translation                                                Idiomatic Translation
                        Semantic Translation                        Communicative Translation

Gambar 1. Diagram V (Newmark 1988:45)

From 8 types of translation methods above, 4 types of translation method oriented to source text and the others oriented to target language.

Oriented to Source text: 

  1. Word-for-word translation
  2. Literal Translation
  3. Faithful Translation
  4. Semantic Translation
Oriented to Target text:
  1. Adaptation
  2. Free translation
  3. Idiomatic Translation
  4. Communicative translation

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