What is text? Apa itu text

According to Oxford dictionary (2009: 459), text is any form of written material. It is also known as corpus which is the mean body of text (Litosseliti, 2010: 93) or consists of text (part of a text) (Mayer, 2004:6) and collection of texts which is stored on some kind of digital medium (Lindquist, 2009:3). A text is set of words related to that topic to be in the text and has variations in expression – not just the same words repeated throughout the text (Buckmaster, 2015: 5). Atkins (1992: 2) mentioned that the term of texts is often assumed to be a series of coherent sentences and paragraphs and corpus defined as a representative sample of language type with the sampling of texts.
Baker (1995) in Fernandes (2006: 87) stated there are three kinds of corpus type, namely; comparable corpora, multilingual corpora, and parallel corpora. 1) Comparable corpora consist of two separate collections of texts in the same language: one corpus consists of original texts in the language in question and the other consists of translations in that language from a given source language or languages, 2) Parallel corpora consist of original, source language-texts in language A and their translated versions in language B. Halliday (2004: 122) mentioned that parallel corpus also called as translation corpus with defines a corpus of original texts in one language and their translations into another (or several other languages), 3) Multilingual corpora are sets of two or more monolingual corpora in different languages, built up either in the same or different institutions on the basis of similar design criteria.
Regarding text type, Reiss (1977), builds concept of equivalent. Her work views the text, rather than word or sentence. The approach aims initially to assess the translation. Reiss links the three to their corresponding language ‘dimension’ and to the text types or communicative situations. The main characteristic the text type are summarized as follow (Reiss, 1977: 108-9 in Munday, 2012:112):
1.             Informative text type.
The language function is informative (representing objects and facts). ‘Plain communication of facts’: information, knowledge, opinion, etc. The language dimension used to transmit the information is logical or referential, the content or topic is the main focus of the communication. The form of language is logical. The text focus is content-focused. The translation method is plain purpose, explicitation as required. The example of the text is reference work, report, lecture, journal, etc.
2.             Expressive text type
The language function is expressive (expressing sender’s attitude). Creative composition’: the author uses the aesthetic dimension of language. The author or sender is foregrounded, as well as the form of the message. The form of language is aesthetic. The text focus is form-focused. The translation method is ‘identifying’ method, adopt perspective of ST author. The example of the text is poem, play, biography, etc.
3.             Operative text type
The language function is appellative (making an appeal to text receiver). The aim of the appellative function is to appeal to or persuade the reader or receiver of the text in a certain way. The example of the text is advert (to buy a product), and agree to an argument. The form of language is dialogic. The text focus is appellative-focused. The translation method is adaptive, equivalent effect. 
Audio-media text. The example of the text are film and visual and spoken advertisement.

Figure 2.1 Reiss’ text types and text varieties
Atkins (1992: 2) stated that texts sources for translation output is from small in newspaper or magazine, journal, book, poem, published correspondence. According to Atkins, Journal is one of the source texts. By the main characteristic of each text type above (Reiss, 1977: 108-9 in Munday, 2012:112), journal involve to the informative text type (reference work and report). In short, Journal is suitable to assess the output of CAT Tool.

In other text type, the expressive text type has expressive function and the language form is aesthetic. Moreover, operative text type has appellative function to appeal and persuade the reader. Meanwhile, informative text type has informative or content-focused. In the CAT Tool translation, it more emphasize on content rather than aesthetic and appellative.

Sumber : Fuadi, C. (2017). An Analysis of Computer Assisted Translation Tool from English into Bahasa Indonesia and Vice Versa. Thesis. Unpublished Thesis. Yogyakarta: Yogyakarta State University.

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