What is Cultural Term ? Istilah Budaya

A cultural term is usually marked by special characteristics. Every language in  the  world  has  its  own  words,  phrases, or expressions that marked  by  special  characteristics. Culture is also as complex things, including religion system and politic, custom, language, tool, cloth, building and artistic things.
One aspect of culture is language (Risna, 2016, p. 382). She stated that language is part of culture. In the point, translation is relating with language and culture. Sutrisno (2005, p. 133) stated that language and culture is relating and there are interrelationship between language and culture. He also defines language as expression of culture and person of native speaker, and then automatically language will influence the speaker. 
Discuss about nature, culture and language, these term are relating each other. One way thinking about culture is to contrast it with nature. Kramsch (1998, p. 4) stated that nature refers to what is born and grows organically (from Latin nascere : to be born). Meanwhile, culture refers to what has been grown and groomed (from the Latin colere: to cultivate). Kramsch (1998, p. 5) added that language and culture impose on nature correspond to various form of socialization or acculturation. The use of written language is also shaped and socialized through culture. 
There are various definitions of culture. Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia (Indonesian dictionary) defines culture as follow; 1) though; 2) custom, 3) something relating to developed culture (civilized); 4) something has become a habit. Meanwhile, oxford dictionary define culture as customs, beliefs, art, way of life, etc of particular country or group. Newmark (1998, p. 94) define culture  as  the  way  of  life  and  its  manifestations  that  are  peculiar  to  a community that uses a particular language as its means of expression.
More specifically, Newmark (1998, p. 94) distinguish ‘cultural’ from ‘universal’ and ‘personal language’.  Newmark gives example; ‘Die’, ‘live’, ‘star’, ‘swim’ and even almost virtually ubiquitous artifacts like ‘mirror’ and ‘table’ are universals. In this case, usually there is no translation problem there. In other words, ‘Monsoon’, ‘steppe’, ‘dacha’, ‘tagliatelle’ are cultural words – there will be a translation problem unless there is cultural overlap between the source and the target language (and its readership). Newmark added the more specific a language becomes for natural phenomena (e.g., flora and fauna) the more it becomes embedded in cultural features, and therefore creates translation problems. Which is worrying, since it is notorious that the translation of the most general words (particularly of morals and feelings) - love, temperance, temper right, wrong - is usually harder than that of specific words.

Newmark (1988, p. 95) discusses the translation of foreign cultural words in the narrow sense. He classifies culture-specific terms into five categories. They are; (1) Ecology: fauna, flora, and geographical features, (2) Material culture:  clothes, food, houses/city, transports, and traditional weapons, (3) Social culture: work, leisure, names and terms of address, and kinship, (4) Social Organization: social organization, social administration, religion, artistic things and craft, and (5) Habits and Gesture.
  • Risna, Sulfah. (2016). Peran Ideologi Penerjemahan Dalam Pemertahanan Budaya Bangsa. Proceding of National Seminar and Nationality Dialogue, Cultural Science Faculty, Hasanuddin Univeristy. 381 – 394
  • Sutrisno, M. (2005). Teori – Teori Kebudayaan. Yogyakarta : Kanisius.
  • Kramsch, Claire. (1998). Language and Culture. New York : Oxford University Press.
  • Kamus Besar Bahasa Indonesia.(2010). KBBI offline versi 1.1. http://ebsoft.web.id.
  • Newmark, P,. (1988).  A Textbook of Translation. Hertfordshire: Prentice hall.

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