Thursday, 24 March 2016


•    Newmark (1988:5) defined  translation as“ is rendering the meaning of a text into another language in the way that the author intended the text.”
•    Bell (1991:6) stated “translation is thereplacement of a representation of a text in one language by a representation of an equivalent text in a second language.”
•    According to Savory (1968) in Suryawinata (2003:12) “translation is made possible by an equivalent of thought that lies behind its different verbal expressions.”
•    Larson (1984) mentioned “Translation is basically a change of form. When we speak of the form of a  language, we are referring to the actual words, phrases, clauses, sentences, paragraphs, etc., which are spoken or written. ..... in translation the form of the source language is replaced by the form of the receptor (target) language.”
•    McGuire in Machali  (1998:1) explained “Translation is the rendering of a source language (SL) text into the target language (TL) so as to ensure that (1) the surface meaning of the two will be approximately similar and (2) the structures of the SL will be preserved as closely as possible but not so closely that the TL structures will be serously distorted.”
•    Weber in Bermann and Wood (2005:12) described “....translation always involves not merely the movement from one language to another, but from one instance- a text already existing inone language- to another instance, that does not previously exist, but that is brought into being in the other language.”
•    Nida and Taber (1982:12) noted “translating consists of reproducing in the receptor language the closest natural equivalent of the source language message, first in terms of meaning and secondly in terms of style.”
•    Jacques (2010) stated “The process of translating comprises in its essence the whole secret of human understanding of the world and of social communication.”

Bell, R.T. (1991). Translation and translating: theory and practice. London and New York: Longman.
Bermann, S. &Wood, M. (2005). Nation, language, and the ethics of translation. USA: Princeton University Press.
Jacques, T. (2010). Translating theory in Media and communication studies, 58: 153-178. Hokkaido UniversityCollection of Scholarly and Academic Papers.
Machali, R. (1998). Redefining textual equivalence in translation. Indonesia: The Translation Center, UI.
Newmark, P. (1988). A textbook of translation. New York: Prentice Hall.
Nida, E.A. & Taber, C.R. (1982). The theory and practice of translation. Berlin: E.J. Brills.
Suryawinata, Z &Hariyanto. (2003). Translation: bahasan teori dan penuntun praktis menerjemahkan. Yogyakarta: Kanisius.

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