Definition of Translation and Translating

1.      Translation is the general term reffering to the transfer of thoughts and ideas from one language (source) to another (target), whether the language are in written or oral form, whether  the languages have established orthographies or do not have such standardization, or whether or one or both are based on signs, as with sign languages of the deaf (Brislin, 1976:1).
2.      Translation is the super ordinate term for converting  the meaning of any source language utterance in source language (Newmark, 1988:32).
3.      Translation is an operation performed on languages: a process of subtituting a text in one language for a text in another. Clearly, then ,any theory of translation must draw upon a theory of language-a general linguistic theory (Catford, 1965:1).
4.      Translation is conceived primarily as process of intercultural communication, whose end product is a text which is capable of functioning appropriately in specific situations and contexts of use (Manttari via Baker, 2001:3).
5.      A translation is not a monistic composition, but an interpenetration and conglomerate of two structures. On the one hand there are the semantic content and the formal contour of the original, on the other handthe entire system of aesthetic features bound up with the language of the translation (Levy via Bassnett, 2002: 16).
6.      Translation is The process of  transferring a written text from source language (SL) to target language (TL) (Hatim and Munday, 2004: 6).    
7.      Translating  is reproducing in the receptor language the closest natural equivalent of the source language message, first in terms of meaning and secondly in term of style (Nida and Taber, 1982:12).
8.      Translating is the process or result of converting information from one language or language variety into another (Bell, 1991:13).


Baker, Mona. 2001. Routledge Encyclopedia of Translation Studies. London: Routledge
Basnett, Susan. 2002. Translation Studies. London: Routledge
Bell, Roger T. 1991. Translation and Translating: Theory and Practice. London: Longman
Brislin, R.W. 1976. Translation: Application and Research. New York: Garden Press. Inc
Catford, J.C. 1965. A Linguistic Theory of Translation. London: Oxford University
Hatim & Munday. 2004. Translation, An Advanced Resource Book. London: Routledge.
Newmark, Peter. 1988. A Text Book of Translation. New York: Prentice Hall
Nida, E.A. & Taber, C.R. 1982. The Theory and Practice of Translation. Leiden: E.J. Brill

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