Tuesday, 29 March 2016

Definisi Interpretation and Intrepreting


INTERPRETATION

Gadamer, dikutipoleh John Sallis (2005:58):

“Thus every translation is already interpretation. One could say: the translator not only must intend the meaning and keep that intention in force, so that the meaning is preserved in the translation, but also must interpret the meaning, so as to be able to set it in the context of the other language; he must thus express it in the new language world in such a way as to establish it as a valid meaning within that world.”


Daniel Gile (2004:12):

“The main obvious differences in the processes of translation versus interpreting have to do with technical constraints. Translators have hours, days, weeks, or longer to deal with problems that arise, whereas interpreters only have seconds or minutes.”

“While translating, translators can also consult various sources of information, including printed and electronic reference texts, colleagues and experts in the relevant field. Interpreters cannot, except possibly for a glance at a glossary or a document they have in the interpreting booth in front of them while they are interpreting, at the risk of missing part of the incoming speech.”


Daniel Gile (2004:13):

“The product of interpretation is an oral (or signed) text, which is mentally processed by the listener as soon as it is heard (or seen), ..... The product of translation is a written text, which is read at the speed chosen by the reader.”


Brislin (1976:1):

“Interpretation refers to oral communication situation in which one person speaks in the source language, an interpreter processes this input and produces output in a second language, and a third person listens to the source language version.”


Phelan (2001:6):

Menyatakan bahwa pengalihbahasaan adalah penerjemahan secara lisan apa yang didengar ke dalam bahasa lain. Ia menambahkan bahwa alihbahasaan terfokus pada gagasan bukan pada kesepadanan pada tataran kata secara terpisah.


Seleskovitch (1976:92-93):

Menegaskan bahwa pengalihbahasaan yang dituturkan secara langsung, lebih ditekankan pada kesepadanan ide atau gagasan, daripada kesepadanan linguistiknya (frasa atau kata).


Weber (1984):

“Interpretation is the oral transposition of an orally delivered message at a conference or a meeting from a source language into a target language, performed in the presence of the participants.”


Edwards, dalam Kelly (2005):

“Interpretation means the unrehearsed transmitting of a spoken or signed message from one language to another.”


INTERPRETING

Shuttleworth dan Cowie (1997:83):

“Interpreting is a term used to refer to the oral translation of a spoken message or text.”


Jones (1996:6):

“The interpreter has first to listen to speaker, understand and analyze what is being said, and then resynthesize the speech in the appropriate form in a different language.”


Gentile, Ozolins, dan Vasilakakos (1996:5):

“Interpreting is the oral transfer of messages between speakers of different languages.”


Brislin (dalam Nababan 2003:114):

“Pengalihbahasaan menunjuk pada situasi komunikasi lisan dimana seseorang berbicara dalam bahasa sumber, alihbahasawan memproses informasi yang ditangkapnya dan kemudian mengalihbahasakan informasi itu ke dalam bahasa sasaran dan orang ketiga menyimak hasil proses itu.”


Arjona (1977:35):

Penerjemahan lisan sebagai “the oral translation of a message across a cultural/linguistic barrier.”

Edwards (dalam Kelly, 2005):

Menambahkan bahwa serorang interpreter tidak hanya mengalihbahasakan secara spontan, tetapi juga pengalihbahasaan dari bentuk lisan ke dalam bentuk isyarat.

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