Monday, 28 March 2016

Definisi Consecutive and Whispered Intrepreting

CONSECUTIVE INTERPRETING

-    Debra Russell (2005) Consecutive interpretation is defined as the process of interpreting after the speaker or signer has completed one or more ideas in the source language and pauses while the interpreter transmits that information.
-    Seleskovitch (1978) describes consecutive interpretation as follows: In consecutive interpretation the interpreter does not start speaking until the original speaker has stopped. He therefore has time to analyze the message as a whole, which makes it easier for him to understand its meaning. The fact that he is there in the room, and that the speaker has stopped talking before he begins, means that he speaks to his listeners face to face and he actually becomes the speaker.
-    Consecutive interpretation: training in consecutive interpreting skills includes a variety of exercises, consecutive interpretation without notes, summarisation, sight translation and note- taking techniques, and cover texts from a diverse range of subject areas, written in a variety of styles and registers (Agata Opara, 2011:193)
-    Weber (1984) states that CI is used in conferences whenever a high degree of accuracy is required, and “when participants in a meeting find it useful to have additional time for reflection during interpretation”
-    Consecutive interpreting the interpreter translates whole sections of the speech with a timelag using notes (a special form of notation) after the original speaker has spoken. The number of consecutive interpreters required depends on the level of difficulty and the duration of the engagement. (Wieser & Keβler)
-    Santiago (2002) yang mengatakan bahwa "in its purest form, consecutive interpretation is a mode which the interpreter begins the interpretation of a complete message after the speaker has stopped producing the source utterance.


WHISPERED INTERPRETING
-    Whispered interpreting (also chuchotage) is a subcategory of simultaneous interpreting whispered into the listener’s ear for which no specialised equipment is required. (Costa, Hernani and Corpas Pastor, Gloria and Dur´an Mu˜noz, Isabel (2014).
-    Whispered interpreting is done by one interpreter for another individual to whom the translation is repeated in a whisper. Monica D. Reynoso (2006:10)
-    Whispering interpretation is a special type of simultaneous interpretation suitable for specific situations only. In this case the interpreter stands or sits just behind or beside the person being interpreted for and  whispers the interpretation of the speeches straight into his or her ear. As with simultaneous interpreting, at least 2 conference interpreters work in tandem, and, for acoustic reasons and in the interests of the other participants, only for one or at most two speakers at a time. (Wieser & Keβler)
-    Whispered Interpreting yang dikenal dalam bahasa Perancis sebagai Chuchotage kini umumnya dilakukan dengan cara berbicara pelan. bahkan alat bantu suara seperti mokrofon memungkinkan untuk digunakan. (Pochhaker, 2004:19)
-    Whispering Interpreting : This less formal method is used when the meeting is taking place in one language (English, for example) and one or two delegates speak a different language. The interpreter sits beside the delegate and whispers the interpretation to him/her during the meeting.
- Whispering interpretation is a special type of simultaneous interpretation suitable for specific situations only. In this case the interpreter stands or sits just behind or beside the person being interpreted for and whispers the interpretation of the speeches straight into his or her ear. As with simultaneous interpreting, at least 2 conference interpreters work in tandem, and, for acoustic reasons and in the interests of the other participants, only for one or at most two speakers at a time.

References:
http://www.medev.ac.uk/docs/cathy_jackson_consulting_interpretor/CJackson_Consulting_0605.pdf http://www.justicewomen.com/help_interpreter.html   

0 komentar:

Post a Comment

◄ Newer Post Older Post ►
 

Copyright 2012 TukangTerjemahDotCom Seo Elite by BLog BamZ | Blogger Templates