Language death

Another sociolinguistic phenomenon related to language change is language death. There are more than 500 languages under the status of dying. A dying language is a language spoken by fewer and fewer people from time to time and a dead language is a language that has no speakers anymore because the speakers have totally shifted to another language (language shifting) or because they live no more.
Regarding the reasons, there are two types of language death. The first type is called partial language death and the second one is named total language death.
1) The partial language death
The partial language death is related to the language shift phenomenon found in the immigrant groups in their new land. The language of Cornish in England, Chinese and Spanish in USA, German and Greek in Australia were dead partially as the native speakers shift to English in the new land, but in their homeland the language are all still spoken.
During the first years some Indonesian families arriving in Australia and having a settlement there may still want to use Indonesian. After they have a children (the second generation), the children may begin to speak only English. However, after the third generation emerges, none of the families may be found to speak Indonesian anymore. In this phase the Indonesian language is under the status of ‘dead’. The death of Indonesian, however, is partial because in others parts of the world, Indonesian Language is still spoken.
2) The total language death
The total language death happens when the language has no more speakers left. The situation is more likely to come about to the language spoken by minority than to the language with lots of speakers. Factors  that are said to cause the death of a language include an amalgamation of extreme political pressure from the speakers of other language, deadly diseases that severely attack the speakers and economic reason associated with the use of the language.
Thus supposed that all Indonesian speakers (natives and non-natives) around the world are not, using Indonesian anymore, Indonesian language is in the state of totally dead.
Some linguists view that for the increasing numbers of English speakers, speakers of other languages are worried that their tongues may be someday dead.
Most language of American Indians indeed died in their own land after their cultures were invaded and the speakers were killed by the European immigrants. In Australia more than 50 Aboriginal languages vanished after their speakers were killed by diseases. In Brazil between the 19th and 20th century about 800 Indian languages were reported to be dead. In Tasmania the language spoken by the native people (between 3000-4000) also slowly disappeared.

see article language maintenance, click here

Kepunahan Bahasa
Fenomena sosiolinguistik lain yang berkaitan dengan perubahan bahasa adalah kepunahan bahasa. Ada lebih dari 500 bahasa dalam status ‘dying’ (menuju kepunahan). Bahasa “dying” adalah bahasa yang diucapkan oleh lebih sedikit dan lebih sedikit orang dari waktu ke waktu, sedangkan kepunahan bahasa adalah bahasa yang  tidak lagi memiliki penutur karena penutur benar-benar telah pindah ke bahasa lain (Perpindahan bahasa).
Mengenai alasan, ada dua jenis kepunahan bahasa. Tipe pertama disebut kepunahanan bahasa parsial dan yang kedua bernama kepunahan bahasa total.
1) Kepunahan bahasa parsial
kepunahan Bahasa parsial terkait dengan fenomena pergeseran bahasa yang ditemukan di kelompok imigran di tanah baru (new land) mereka. Bahasa Cornish di Inggris, Cina dan Spanyol di Amerika Serikat, Jerman dan Yunani di Australia yang mati sebagian sebagai pergeseran penutur asli bahasa Inggris di tanah yang baru, tapi di tanah air mereka bahasa yang semua tersebut masih dituturkan.
Selama tahun pertama, beberapa keluarga Indonesia tiba di Australia dan masih ingin menggunakan bahasa Indonesia. Setelah mereka memiliki anak-anak (generasi kedua), anak-anak mungkin mulai berbicara hanya bahasa Inggris. Namun, setelah generasi ketiga muncul, tidak ada keluarga yang ditemukan bicara Indonesian lagi. Dalam tahap ini bahasa Indonesia berada di bawah status 'mati'. Kematian Bahasa Indonesia, namun, ini masih sebagian karena orang lain di belahan bumi lain, bahasa Indonesia masih digunakan dalam berbicara.
2) Kepunahan bahasa total
kepunahan bahasa Total terjadi ketika bahasa  tidak ada penuturnya. Situasi ini lebih mungkin terjadi dalam bahasa yang digunakan oleh minoritas penutur dari pada bahasa dengan banyak penutur. Faktor-faktor yang menyebabkan kematian bahasa termasuk dari tekanan politik yang ekstrim dari penutur bahasa lain, penyakit mematikan yang parah menyerang penutur dan alasan ekonomi yang terkait dengan penggunaan bahasa.
Sehingga Jika semua pembicara Bahasa Indonesia (pribumi dan non-pribumi) di seluruh dunia tidak lagi menggunakan bahasa Indonesia, maka bahasa Indonesia di negara ini benar-benar punah.
Beberapa pandangan ahli linguistik  dalam meningkatkan jumlah penutur bahasa Inggris, penutur bahasa lain khawatir bahwa bahasa ibu mereka mungkin suatu hari nanti hilang.
Kebanyakan bahasa Indian Amerika memang mati di tanah mereka sendiri setelah budaya mereka diserang dan penutur dibunuh oleh para imigran Eropa. Di Australia lebih dari 50 bahasa Aborigin menghilang setelah penutur mati karna penyakit. Di Brasil antara abad 19 dan  ke-20 tentang 800 bahasa Indian dilaporkan punah. Di Tasmania bahasa yang digunakan oleh penduduk asli (antara 3000-4000) juga perlahan-lahan menghilang.

Artikel pemertahanan bahasa, klik disini

Reference :
Made iwan irawan Jendra. 2012. Sociolinguistic (The study of Societies’ language). Yogyakarta; Graha Ilmu. P.144-147

Language Maintenance (Pemertahanan Bahasa)


Language Maintenance is a situation when a speech-community can maintain or continue using their language from generation to generation although there are conditions that could affect them to shift to another language. In a maintaining language, a speech community refuses to use another language. The attitude is often termed as language loyalty while the situation is known as language maintenance. The following definition of the concept;

“Language maintenance refers simply to the preservation by a speech community of its native language from generation to generation. Preservation implies that the language changes only by small degrees in the short run owing to internal developments and/or (limited) contact with other languages. Hence the various subsystems of the language, the phonology, morphology, syntax, semantics and core lexicon, remain relatively intact.” (Donald winford, 2003)

There are several factors that explain why language maintenance takes place. In a monolingual, bilingual or multilingual community, several factors have been learned to contribute to maintaining the language. The factors include the following;

1. Larger numbers of speaker

In a community where several groups of speaker speaking different languages live, the group with more speakers has better possibility to maintain their language. In other words, fewer speakers have to face more challenge.

In the world, Chinese claim the largest number of native speakers today. There are approximately more than one billion of them. However, English is still has more speakers (native and non-native) around the world than any other languages. And from day to day there are more and more people becoming English learners. This large numbers of speakers and learners can definitely help the maintenance of English.

2. Concentration of Living

In immigrant cases, when the groups of immigrant people live together in one place (concentration) the chance to maintain the language is better than if she immigrants live separately from one another (separation/isolation). Surrounded by speaker of a different languages can influence a speech community to shift to the language spoken by those people around it, especially when they speak a language with a better economic and political value.

3. Identity and Pride of Culture

Although they are small in numbers, a group of language speakers may succeed in maintaining their language if it is considered to be closely related to the culture. When the language and the culture are related, the speakers often believe that the language is an important cultural identity. With such a faith the speakers carry a certain pride in using the language. This is turn pushes them to maintain it. Most English speakers perhaps have a pride as ‘international’ or ‘global’ people who live international or global culture. Thus, for this background, unlike the other languages that may be abandoned by their speakers, as immigrants, native speakers of English will normally maintain their language wherever they live, although they are small in numbers and separated in the new land.

4. Better Economic condition

Lots of poor immigrants in their new land think that their language is related to their low economic condition. Meanwhile, immigrants with a good economic condition may believe that their fortune is also due to the language they use. Lots of reports say that people learning English believe that if they can speak the language they have better chance to get better jobs. When this economic promise of English continues to be dependable, it will support the maintenance of the tongue.

See article of Language death, click here




Pemeliharaan Bahasa (pemertahanan bahasa)

Pemertahanan bahasa adalah situasi ketika sebuah komunitas penutur dapat mempertahankan atau terus menggunakan bahasa mereka dari generasi ke generasi meskipun ada kondisi-kondisi yang dapat mempengaruhi mereka untuk beralih ke bahasa lain. Dalam bahasa yg dipertahankan, komunitas penutur menolak untuk menggunakan bahasa lain. Sikap ini sering disebut sebagai kesetiaan bahasa sementara situasi dikenal sebagai pemertahanan bahasa. berikut Definisi konsep;

"Pemertahanan Bahasa mengacu hanya pelestarian oleh komunitas penutur bahasa asli dari generasi ke generasi.Pelestarian menyiratkan bahwa perubahan bahasa  hanya dengan derajat kecil dalam jangka pendek karena perkembangan internal dan/atau (terbatas) kontak dengan bahasa lain.Oleh karena itu berbagai subsistem bahasa, fonologi morfologi, sintaksis, semantik dan inti lexicon, tetap relatif utuh." (Donald winford, 2003)

Ada beberapa faktor yang menjelaskan mengapa pemertahanan bahasa  berlangsung. Dalam komunitas monolingual, bilingual atau multi bahasa komunitas, beberapa faktor berikut berkontribusi dalam pemertahanan bahasa. Faktor-faktor termasuk berikut;

1. Jumlah penutur

Dalam sebuah komunitas di mana tinggal beberapa kelompok penutur berbicara bahasa yang berbeda, dengan penutur yang lebih banyak memiliki kemungkinan yang lebih baik untuk menjaga dan mempertahankan bahasa mereka. Dengan kata lain, lebih sedikit penutura harus menghadapi tantangan lain.

Di dunia saat ini, Cina mengklaim sebagai jumlah terbesar dalam penutur asli. Ada sekitar lebih dari satu miliar jumlah penutur aslinya. Namun, Bahasa Inggris masih memiliki speaker (asli dan non-asli) di seluruh dunia daripada bahasa lain. Dan dari hari ke hari ada semakin banyak orang menjadi pembelajar bahasa Inggris. Jumlah besar penutur dan peserta didik pasti dapat membantu pemeliharaan bahasa Inggris.

2. Konsentrasi hidup

Dalam kasus imigran, ketika kelompok orang-orang imigran hidup bersama di satu tempat (konsentrasi) kesempatan untuk menjaga bahasa lebih baik daripada jika dia imigran tinggal secara terpisah dari satu sama lain (pemisahan/isolasi). Dikelilingi oleh pembicara yang berbeda bahasa dapat mempengaruhi masyarakat penutur untuk beralih ke bahasa yang digunakan oleh orang-orang di sekitarnya, terutama ketika mereka menggunakan bahasa dengan nilai ekonomi dan politik lebih baik.

3. Identitas dan kebanggaan budaya

Meskipun mereka dalam jumlah kecil, sekelompok penutur bahasa kemungkinan berhasil menjaga bahasa mereka jika hal ini dianggap untuk menjadi terkait erat dengan budaya. Ketika berhubungan dengan bahasa dan budaya , para penutur sering percaya bahwa bahasa adalah sebuah identitas budaya yang penting. Dengan kepercayaan ini, Penutur merasa bangga dalam menggunakan bahasa. Ini adalah giliran mendorong mereka untuk mempertahankan bahasa. Banyak Penutur bahasa Inggris  memiliki rasa bangga sebagai bahasa orang-orang 'internasional' atau 'global'  yang hidup dalam budaya internasional atau global. Jadi, untuk latar belakang ini, tidak seperti bahasa lain yang mungkin ditinggalkan oleh penutur, sebagai imigran, penutur asli bahasa Inggris akan menjaga bahasa mereka dimanapun mereka tinggal, meskipun mereka kecil dalam angka dan dipisahkan dalam tanah air yang baru.

4. Kondisi ekonomi yang lebih baik

Banyak para immigran miskin di tanah air baru, mereka berpikir bahwa bahasa mereka berhubungan dengan keadaan ekonomi. Sementara itu, para imigran dengan kondisi ekonomi yang baik mungkin percaya bahwa nasib mereka adalah juga karena bahasa yang mereka gunakan. Banyak laporan mengatakan bahwa orang-orang yang belajar bahasa percaya bahwa jika mereka dapat berbicara bahasa mereka memiliki kesempatan yang lebih baik untuk mendapatkan pekerjaan yang lebih baik. Ketika ekonomi Inggris dapat diandalkan, itu akan mendukung pemeliharaan bahasa Ibu.

Untuk Kepunahan Bahasa klik disini

Reference :
Made iwan irawan Jendra. 2012. Sociolinguistic (The study of Societies’ language). Yogyakarta; Graha Ilmu. P.144-147

Machine Translation is also known as CAT (Computer - assisted translation) Tools. The term of ‘Machine Translation’ (MT) firstly established by Warren Weaver on 1947 (Arnold, 1994: 12). Warren Weaver is defended the feasibility of developing an automatic translation program. Then, it is known as Systran (Acronym for System Translation).

Arnold (1994:1) stated that Automatic Translation or Machine Translation as it is generally known – the attempt to automate all, or part of the process of translating from one language to another. Koehn (2009:1) stated that machine translation systems are for instant access to foreign language text. Polo (2012: 37) stated that Machine Translation (MT in subsequent text) can be defined as the transfer from one natural language to another with the help of a computer. ElShiekh (2012: 57) stated that Machine translation, in computational linguistics, publishing, and other fields, is a term that is used to refer to the use of computers to conduct large-scale translation operations.

Today, there is a lot of machine translation in the worlds. The machine translation provides various feature and many languages over the world. Generally, machine translation or known as Computer Assisted Translation tool (CAT Tool) divided into two, free and paid. In free CAT Tool, everyone can use free CAT Tool because ease to use and free. But, beginner user of Free CAT Tool found unexpected of output.  Moreover, user also found ambiguity context. Then, they get difficult to find appropriate CAT Tool to translate text. The examples of free CAT Tool are Google Translate, Transtool Software, sederet.com, translate.com, etc

In Paid CAT Tool, user might translate better than free CAT Tool. Paid CAT Tool offers some feature, such cloud for memory of data. It also provide consistent terminology when translate the document. But, user should pay to use the CAT Tool. The examples of Paid CAT Tool are Trados, Memsource, etc. 

References: 

  1. Arnold, Douglas, et al. (2014). Machine Translation : An Introductory Guide. London : NCC Blackwell Ltd.
  2. ElShiekh, Ahmed Abdel Azim. (2012). Google Translate Service: Transfer of Meaning, Distortion or Simply a New Creation? : An Investigation into the Translation Process & Problems at Google. Journal of English Language and Literature Studies. 2 (1) : 56-68.
  3. Koehn, Philipp. (2009). A Process Study of Computed Aided Translation. Journal-paper.tex. 21(02); 1-28
  4. Polo, Laura Ramírez. (2012). Use and Evaluation of Controlled Languages in Industrial Environments and Feasibility Study for the Implementation of Machine Translation. Unpublished PhD Thesis. Valencia : Universidad De Valencia.
a)  SMT
Statistical machine translation (SMT) is an approach to machine  translation  that  is characterized by  the  use  of  machine  learning  methods  and it means  that SMT  has  a  learning  algorithm  that  is  applied  to large  body  of  previously  translated  text,  or  known  as  parallel  corpus,  parallel  text, bitext, or multitext (Syahrina : 2011).  SMT is based on the concept of probability. The translation is chosen from the highest probability. The probability score is obtained by previous data from training the SMT with human translated document and from mathematical model, including language model and translation model. The  source  language  text  is pre-processed  first before applying  language model  and  global  search model  and  preprocessed  again  for  the final presentation in the target language text.
The main goal of SMT is the translation of a text given in some source language into a target language (Jussa, et all : 2012). SMT model firstly started from a word-based translation. But recent development introduces SMT of other models such as phrase-based and syntax-based.  Syntax development was still on the research.

b)  RBMT
Rule-based machine translation (RBMT) systems were the first commercial machine translation systems (Jussa, et all : 2012). RBMT is much more complex than translating word to word, and these systems develop linguistic rules that allow the words to be put in different places, to have different meaning depending on context, etc. BMT methodology applies a set of linguistic rules in three different phases: analysis, transfer and generation. Therefore, a rule-based system requires: syntax analysis, semantic analysis, syntax generation and semantic generation.

Thurmair (2009) quoted by (Syahrina : 2011) gave comments about how RMT and SMT performs. RMT  systems  have  weaknesses  in  lexical  selection  in  transfer,  and  lack robustness in case of analysis failures sentences. However they translate more accurately by trying to represent every piece of the input. Meanwhile, SMT systems are more robust and always pro-duce output. They read more fluent, due to the use of Language Models, and are better in lexical selection. However,  they  have  difficulties  to  cope  with  phenomena  which  require linguistic  knowledge,  like morphology,  syntactic  functions,  and  word  order. Also, they lose adequacy due to missing or spurious translations.

c)    HMT
Hybrid Machine Translation (HMT) was built due to the weakness of the two approaches and their possibility to be integrated (Syahrina : 2011). Syahrina mentioned that statistical Machine Translation and Rule-Based Translation are two MT approaches which work oppositely yet complementarily. SMT did not need to learn about the language at all, while RMT‟s basis is gathering language rules.
In  HMT  architecture  there  are  three  basic  components  of  HMT  architecture: identification  of  source  language  by  observing  chunks  (words,  phrases  and equivalents),  transformation  of  the  chunks  into  target  language,  and  generation  of translated  language  (Thurmair,  2009).

Reference :

  1. Jussa, Marta R. Costa, et al, (2012). Study and comparison of rule-based and statistical catalan-spanish machine translation systems. Journal of Computing and Informatics. 31: 245–270.
  2. Syahrina, Alvi. (2011). Online machine translator system and result comparison – statistical machine translation vs hybrid machine translation. Unpublished Thesis. University of Boras, Sweden.
  3. Thurmair,  G.  (2009).  Comparing  different  architectures  of  hybrid  Machine Translation systems. European Association of Machine Translation.
  4. Translate.google.co.id
As in oxford dictionary, evaluation means “decide on the value or quality”. Metric can be defined as a method for assessing the translation quality.  Translation evaluation has traditionally been based on error detection (Conde: 2011). Evaluation is also an effort to measure the value or quality of activity, program, or project which compare the purpose and the process.

There are two kinds of evaluation of output quality of machine translation; Automatic and Manual evaluation. Automatic machine translation evaluation is a means of scoring the output from a machine translation system with respect to a small corpus of reference translations. The examples of automatic evaluation methods are BLEU, NEVA, WAFT, Word Accuracy and Meteor.

Another evaluation is manual evaluation. The example of manual evaluation method is SAE J2450 standard. SAE J2450 issued by SAE in 2001 which has aimed to evaluate the translation output both human and machine translation.

The  procedure  of  SAE  J2450  metrics,  as written  in  SAE’s publication,  consists  of  five  actions which  are  summarized  as follows:
a) Mark the location of the error in the target text with a circle.
b) Indicate the primary category of the error.
c) Indicate the sub-classification of the error as either “serious” or “minor:
d) Look up the numeric value of the error.
e) Compute the normalized score. (SAE, 2001)
 

Table 2.1 Error Categories, Classifications, and Weights (SAE, 2011).



The categories selected are explained as follows:
a) Wrong Term (WT)
Terms here refers to single word, multi-word phrase, abbreviation, acronym, number and proper names.
b) Syntactic Error (SE)
Errors in SE include errors related to grammar and structures, either structure in sentence or phrases.
c) Ommision (OM)
OM calculates the words that are deleted in the target language.
d) Word Structure or Agreement Error (SA)
SA refers to the mistakes in morphological forms of a word, including case, gender, suffix, prefix, infix, and other inflections.
e)  Misspelling (SP)
SP includes misspellings and inappropriate writing systems.  For  example  in Swedish  for  “health  sciences”  is  “vårdvetenskap”  even  though  vård  means health  and  vetenskap means  sciences,  the  two words  should  be  a  combined word.
f)  Punctuation Error (PE)
PE calculates whether there is an error in punctuation rules in the text.
g)  Miscellaneous Error (ME)
ME includes other errors that could not quite fit in the other attributes. Some of the example includes literal translation of idioms, culturally offensive words, and extra words that have no meaning related to the text.

An  important  rule  (or  called Meta-rule)  to be  considered  in  this metric  is when  the error  is  ambiguous,  always  choose  the  earliest  category  and when  in  doubt,  always choose serious over minor.

Reference :

Conde, Tomás,. (2011). Translation  evaluation  on  the  surface  of  texts:  a preliminary analysis. The Journal of Specialised Translation. 15 : 69 – 86.
SAE. (2001). Surface Vehicle Recommended Practice. Accessed on August 1, 2016, from APEX: http://www.apex-translations.com/documents/sae_j2450.pdf


Untuk order jasa penerjemah klik disini