This writing focuses on nature and teaching of reading in children.

1.  Writing Systems and Speech

Writing systems are designed to represent the individual words of a language, whether through individual words or other higher units of language, such as phrase and sentence. There are many different writing scripts in the world today, example: India (Devanagri), Egypt (Arabia), Israel (Hebrew), China (Characters), Japan (Character Kana), U.S.S.R (Cyrillic) and Canada (Roman).

Speech is what is said. The different between writing and speech is in the use of language. Such no vocabulary item appears in speech and also different outputs of writing and speech.

2.  Optimal Principles for  the Learning of Reading

a. Reading should involve only meaningful words, phrases and sentences

When taught of children, must selecting word, phrases or sentence with such items be familiar to the child. It is also important that relate to personal context such objects, experiences, action, situations, or events in the child’s environment. Example: car, television, hot, juice, let’s go to the store, etc.

b. Reading should depend on speech understanding and not on speech production

Reading can be learned without speaking. It is often observed to person with speech disabilities or mute. The person acquire language by listening to others speak, and they learn to read by associating that language knowledge with written form. All items may writes on cards. If the cards show to them, they would point the object to which it referred.

c. Reading should not depend on teaching new language or concepts

A reading program should not include the teaching of language. It would be better to teach the reading of words and structures which the child already knows. Or in other words, children are presented written items for which equivalent are already known.

About concepts, actually, this is a principle that is already followed in a Grade 1 in teaching reading to children, example, child does not know vocabulary such as eclipse, process and complex structures like passive or embedded sentences.

d. Reading should not depend on teaching writing

Based on frame page 205, Reading is not dependent on speech production or writing. Rather, reading is dependent on speech understanding and vision where the source of speech understanding is considered to be thinking and audition.

e. Learning to read should be enjoyable

It may provide instruction in the form of interesting games and activities. As a consequence, the children will not only learn to read but also want to read.

3.  A teaching program and some results

a. A four-phase teaching program

Children may be taught to read according the following four phases. Each phase involves meaningful language. The essential ideas in each phase, along with a few illustrative games and activities are offered below. (steinberg, 1980).

a) Phase 1 : Word Familiarization

The purpose of this phase is to acquaint children with the shapes of written words and to have children become aware that different spoken words of the language have different written manifestation. For instructional purposes, one may attach words card to object around the room, example; chair, television, wall, flower and table. The words should be one which the child understands.

A number of activities may be done with the word cards around the room. Three such activities, in sequential order of difficulty, are: room object pointing, word card sticking, and room object matching. In room object pointing, the child point to the written word and the object to which it is attached. In word card sticking, the child is given a word card and asked to place it on an object that is named. In Room object matching, the child is given a word card and is asked to find another like it.

b)  Phase 2 : Word Identification

In this phase, the child learns which particular written words are associated with which particular spoken words or object. For example, when seeing the written word apple in isolation the child is expected to be able to point to the object ‘apple’ (or its picture) or to say apple.

c)   Phase 3 : Phrase and Sentence Identification

This phase is similar to ‘Word Identification’ but use larger linguistic unit. The goal is for the child to read basic linguistic unit, the sentence. Example: that dog is barking at the boy.

It is best to create sentence and phrase fit the event and situations which occur in the immediate situation. For example: Diane fell.

d)     Phase 4 : Text Interpretation

Text involves the largest meaningful written linguistic unit. It consists of a sequence of two or more sentences that are related to one another. Stories and poem are prime examples of texts. As the child progress in reading text, books may have fewer pictures and more text. It is the purpose of this phase to provide children with the knowledge and skill that will enable them to read text fluently.

b. Some results of reading program

Some research did in this case as follow: With English – in the Home, With English – in the nursery school, With Japanese – in the home, With Japanese – in the nursery school.

And as Implications of results showed that the research provides evidence in support of the effectiveness the four phase teaching program and validity of the principle.

4.   Readiness and early Program

a. Readiness research

Concern with readiness, begin in 1920s (Dickson: 1923, Holmes: 1927). One of the most influential studies around that time was that of Morphett and Washburne (1931) who claimed that reading should be postponed until a mental age of 6.5 years was attained. Other reports of this period concurred (Biegelow: 1934, Dean : 1939, Witty & Kope : 1936).

      There were dissenting views. Gates and Bond (1936), found that at the end of first grade the correlation between reading achievement and mental age was only + 25. The author concluded that ‘the optimum time of beginning reading is not entirely dependent upon the nature of the child himself, but is in large measure determined by the nature of reading program’.

      Contemporary theoriest, Durkin (1970), Space (1969) and Adelman (1970) have also taken similar positions. Any special motivation for wanting to read, it might be noted here, is not an important variable for young children. Preschoolers will engage in any activity which interests them regardless of its long term goals.

b. Readiness testing

In assessing the adequacy of readiness test, a close inspection of the specific content of those tests is necessary. Gates – MacGinitie readiness Skills test, it is widely used for kindergarten and first graders. The subtest is following:

a) The listening comprehension subtest measure the child’s ability to understand the total thought of simple story.

The subtest includes 20 stories (plus sample stories), each with a corresponding panel of three pictures in the test booklet.  The examiner reads these stories aloud to the children. Each stories followed by question, and the child is to mark the one picture in each panel that best answer the question.

b) The following directions subtest measures the child’s skill in following increasingly more complex directions.

This subtest has 14 items (and a sample), consisting of one or more directions which the examiner reads aloud. Corresponding to each set of directions is a panel of four pictures to be marked by the child as he carries out the directions.

c)  The letter recognition subtest is designed to measure the child’s recognition of letter of the alphabet.

It consists of18 items (and a sample), with four letters of the alphabet in each item. The examiner names one letter which the child must recognize and mark.

d)  The visual – motor coordination subtest measures the child’s skill in complementing printed letters.

Seven letters (plus a sample) are shown as models and a part of each letter is also printed in the adjoining column. The child is to complete each letter in adjoining column.

e) The Auditory Blending subtest provides information about the child’s ability to join the parts of word, presented orally, into a whole word.

The 14 items (plus a sample), consists of three pictures in each item, saying it in two or three parts, and the child marks the corresponding picture.

c. Early Reading

The research cited above on teaching reading to preschool age children, along with the studies of Soderbergh (1971), Weeks (1981), Doman (1964), Terman (1918) and Fowler (1962), demonstrates that children can be taught to read at an early age.

      There are a numbers of important advantages of teaching reading to children in their preschool years.
  1. Reading satisfies and stimulates a child’s natural curiosity.
  2. The warm supportive informal atmosphere of the home or the preschool provides an excellent situation for learning.
  3. Young children are docile and impressionable.
  4. Young children learn quickly and easily.
 
a.    Anafora adalah pengualangan bunyi, kata, atau sturktur sintaksis pada larik – larik atau kalimat – kalimat yang berturutan untuk memperoleh efek tertentu. Atau bisa didefinisikan sebagai hal atau fungsi merujuk kembali pada sesuatu yang telah disebutkan sebelumnya dalam wacana yang disebut antecedent dengan subtitiusi. Anafora adalah fenomena pengulangan suatu entitas (antecedent) oleh penutur (anaphor) yang menunjukkan kembali kepada entitas itu.
Contoh: Pak Karta rumahnya terbakar, kata Nya menunjuk kepada pak karta
Desa yang indah, dimana ingatan masa kecil didesa itu teringat kembali. Itu menunjuk pada desa
b.    Katafora: pengacauan pada sesuatu yang disebut dibelakang. Katafora merupakan kebaikan dari anofora.
Contoh: pada katanya yang khas, ia mulai bicara. Kata Nya mangacu pada Ia
Pada saat hujan gerimis ini, ku teringat saat bersamanya,
c.    Semantik: Ilmu tentang makna kata dan kalimat. Pengetahuan mengenai seluk beluk pergeseran artika ata. Dengan kata lain bagian strutkur bahasa yang berhubungan dengan makna ungkapan atau struktur makna suatu wicara.
d.    Komunikatif: Keadaan saling berhubungan (mudah dihubungi) mudah dipahami atau dimengerti atau pesan dapat diterima dengan
e.    Rema dan rema merupakan stuktur tematik dalam bahasa teks. Rema dan tema juga berfungsi untuk menautkan pesan dalam klausa. Bisa juga disebut sebagai makna tekstual dari suatu pembicaraan
f.    Konotasi adalah makna kultural atau emosional yang bersifat subjektif dan melekat pada suatu kata atau frase yang bersifat subjektif
g.    Denotasi adalah bila kata itu mengacu atau menunjuk pengertian atau makna yang sebenarnya. Denotatif juga disebut sebagai makna eksplisit dan harfiah dari suatu kata atau frase yang bersifat objektif.
h.    Tema adalah titik awal dari satu pesan yang terealisasi dalam klausa. Tema dinyatakan dengan unsur pertama klausa. Unsur klausa sesudah tema disebut rema (Saragih, 2007:8). Tema dari segi bentuknya dapat berupa partisipan, proses ataupun sirkumstan berbentuk kata, frase maupun kalimat. Jika hanya ada satu unsurdalam klausa yang berpotensi menjadi tema maka unsur tersebut disebut tema sederhana dan dilabeli dengan nama ‚tema’, sedangkan jika di dalam sebuah klausa terdapat lebih dari satu unsur yang berpotensi menjadi tema maka dikatakan tema tersebut sebagai tema kompleks. Tema: Tema lazimnya berwujud Nomina, Frase Nominal atau Pronomina.
Menurut Saragih (2006: 112-114) tema kompleks merupakan “komponen metafungsi terhadap tema“ sebagai berikut.
a.    Tema tekstual; klausa sebagai pesan (message) – penerus atau konjungtif menghubungkan klausa dengan klausa sebelumnya di dalam teks
b.    Tema antarpersona; klausa sebagai pertukaran (exchange) – modal aspek mengindikasikan peran perpindahan dalam pertukaran.
c.    Tema topikal; klausa sebagai representasi (representation) – unsur representasi (partisipan, sirkumstan atau proses).
i.    Rema adalah menjelaskan tentang kalimat langsung’, yang merupakan bagian dari pesan yang dikembangkan oleh tema. Rema juga dikatakan apa yang dikatakan tentang tema, biasanya dalam bentuk predikat.
j.    Maxim Grace: Maxim merupakan prinsip kerja sama  (coorporate principle) dalam komunikasi. Wacana yang wajar dapat terjadi apabila antara penutur dan petutur patuh pada prinsip kerja sama komunikasi. Sehingga maxim sebagai cara untuk menjelaskan hubungan antara ucapan dan apa yang dipahami dari pendengar.

Maxim grace (conversational maxim) dibagi menjadi 4
a.    maksim kuantitas (maxim of quantity),
Di dalam maksim kuantitas, seorang penutur diharapkan dapat memberikan informasi yang cukup, relative memadai, dan seinformatif mungkin. Informasi demikian itu tidak boleh melebihi informasi yang sebenarnya dibutuhkan si mitra tutur. Tuturan yang mengandung informasi yang sungguh-sungguh diperlukan mitra tutur

Contoh:
-  Lihat itu Muhammad Ali mau bertanding lagi!
- Lihat itu Muhammad Ali yang mantan petinju kelas berat itu mau bertanding lagi!


b.    maksim kualitas (maxim of quality)
Dengan maksim kualitas, seorang peserta tutur diharapkan dapat menyampaikan sesuatu yang nyata dan sesuai fakta sebenarnya di dalam bertutur. Fakta itu harus didukung dan didasarkan pada bukti-bukti yang jelas. Tuturan dan tuturan pada bagian berikut dapat dipertimbangkan untuk memperjelas pernyataan ini.
Contoh:
-    Silakan menyontek saja biar nanti saya mudah menilainya!
-    Jangan menyontek, nilainya bisa E nanti!

c.    maksim relevansi ( maxim of relevance)
Di dalam maksim relevansi, dinyatakan bahwa agar terjalin kerja sama yang baik antara penutur dan mitra tutur, masing-masing hendaknya dapat memberikan kontribusi yang relevan tentang sesuatu yang sedang dipertuturkan itu. Bertutur dengan tidak memberikan kontribusi yang demikian dianggap tidak mematuhi dan melanggar prinsip kerja sama.
Contoh:
-    Sang Hyang Tunggal : “Namun sebelum kau pergi, letakkanlah kata-kataku ini   dalam hati!”
-    Semar                : “Hamba bersedia, ya Dewa.”
d.    maksim pelaksanaan  (maxim of manner).
Maksim pelaksanaan ini mengharuskan peserta pertuturan bertutur secara langsung, jelas dan tidak kabur. Orang bertutur dengan tidak mempertimbangkan hal-hal itu dapat dikatakan melanggar Prinsip Kerja Sama Grice karena tidak mematuhi maksim pelaksanaan.
Contoh
-    Ayo, cepat dibuka!
-    Sebentar dulu, masih dingin.”

Contoh deep structur
Give up : Menyerah
Hand over : Menyerah
Ex : The player give up
We hand over mom to do your job

Make good : Berhasil
Make out: Berhasil

Now and then: Kadang - kadang
Something : Kadang - Kadang

A Piece of Cake : mudah diselesaikan
It is easy : Mudah diselesaikan
Ex : The essay is a piece of cake
The essay is easy

Hubungan linguistik terapan dengan penerjemahan
Dalam kajian penerjemahan selalu melibatkan unsur pengetahuan linguistik sehingga penerjemahan sebagai salah satu terpan dalam lingusitik selalu berikaitan.

Manfaat Penerjemahan literal
Terjemahan literal berfungsi untuk membantu seseorang yang belajar bahasa, karena sebelum orang bisa mengetahui bahasa target dia harus menerjemahkan satu persatu atau perkata, setelah itu baru dirangkai menjadi satu kalimat yang bermakna
Persamaan dan kekurangan pengertian penerjemahan
Persamaan dari penerjemahan yang ada buku tersebut antara lain yaitu dari beberapa katanya yaitu translate, change, transfer. Yaitu dari ke empat pengertian dari para ahi membicarakan perubahan, merujuk, memproduksi,  dan menggantikan dari Bsu ke Bsa
Sedangkan pebedaanya adalah menjelaskan dari makna penerjemahan yang paling sempit ke makna penerjemahan yang paling luas. Pengertian yang terluas adalah ada dari webster yaitu mengubah ungkapan atau bentuk ke ungkapan atau bentuk lainya. Sedangkan dari Catford adalah pengalihan meteri teks yang ekuivalent dari satu bahasa ke bahasa yang lain.


Consecutive Interpreting

Russell in Benjamins (2005), “Consecutive interpretation is defined as the process of interpreting after the speaker or signer has completed one or more ideas in the source language and pauses while the interpreter transmits that information.”

Weber (1984) in Gonzales, dkk (2012), “CI is used in conferences whenever a high degree of accuracy is required, and “when participants in a meeting find it useful to have additional time for reflection during interpretation””

Corporate Diversity Team states Consecutive Interpreting (most likely to be used in Herefordshire public services). The interpreter waits until you have completed a segment of speech and then interprets while you pause and your client listens.”

Seleskovitch (1978) in Jaradat (2010), “Consecutive interpretation as follows: In consecutive interpretation the interpreter does not start speaking until the original speaker has stopped. ... has time to analyze the message as a whole, which makes it easier for him to understand its meaning. ... he is there in the room, and that the speaker has stopped talking before he begins...”

“Consecutive interpretation: training in consecutive interpreting skills includes a variety of exercises, consecutive interpretation without notes, summarisation, sight translation
and note- taking techniques, and cover texts from a diverse range of subject areas, written in a variety of styles and registers.” (Agata Opara, 2011:193)

Wieser & Keßler Gb state “... the interpreter translates whole sections of the speech with a time lag using notes (a special form of notation) after the original speaker has spoken. The number of consecutive interpreters required depends on the level of difficulty and the duration of the engagement.”


Whispering Interpreting

“Whispering” is another type of simultaneous interpretation, but one for which no technical equipment is required. The interpreter translates a statement while the speaker continues to speak. To do it, the interpreter must be close to the listener's ear, and use a low, regular
tone (“sotto voce”). (INTERPRETING IN A REFUGEE CONTEXT (RLD 3), 1993)

Cathy Jackson states, “Whispering Interpreting, the less formal method is used when the meeting is taking place in one language (English, for example) and one or two delegates speak a different language. The interpreter sits beside the delegate and whispers the interpretation to him/her during the meeting.”
References:
http://www.medev.ac.uk/docs/cathy_jackson_consulting_interpretor/CJackson_Consulting_0605.pdf http://www.justicewomen.com/help_interpreter.html

“Whispered interpreting (also chuchotage) is a subcategory of simultaneous interpreting
whispered into the listener’s ear for which no specialised equipment is required.” (Costa, 2014: 27).Technology-Assisted Interpreting

“Whispered interpreting is done by one interpreter for another individual to whom the translation is repeated in a whisper.” (Reynoso, 2006:10)


REFERENCE

Costa, H., Pastor, G. C., & Muñoz, I. D. (2014). Technology-assisted interpreting. Multilingual Translation Technology. April/May, 2014. 27-50.

Gonzales, Roseann Duenas. (2012). Fundamentals of Court Interpretation: Theory, Policy, and Practice. Durham: Carolina Academic Press.

UNHCR. (1993). Interpreting In A Refugee Context (RLD 3).June 1993.

Jaradat, Samah. (2010). Culture In Simultaneous Interpreting Of Political Discourse: Obama’s Speech In Cairo. Thesis: American University of Sharjah.

Reynoso, Monica D. 2006. What is translation? what is interpretation? what is the difference between them?. Translation And Interpretation: An intercultural communication profession. January 2006.

Russell, Debra (2005). Consecutive and simultaneous interpreting. Topics in Signed Language Interpreting. 2005. 135-164. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins Publishing Company.

Here I write some examples of CAT Tools.

1.    Paid License
a.    Omega-T
Omega-T is written in Java and is GPL. It can translate OpenDocument files, well-formed XHTML, Java .properties files, key=value files and plaintext files, as well as a number of other formats. Omega-T extracts the text from the source documents, and the translator translates the text within the Omega-T environment. Text formatting is dealt with through special OmegaT tags.
b.    DéjaVù
DéjaVù is a propriatory software (EUR 990 per licence). It can translate many other propriatory formats and open formats, including Gettext PO. It works, similar to OmegaT, by extracting text from source files so that the translator works within the program’s own environment.
The disadvantage of programs like DéjaVù and Omega-T is that they can only handle existing, well-known text formats. The advantage is that they usually handle these formats very well or comprehensively.
c.    Wordfast
Wordfast is a Visual Basic macro that runs inside Microsoft Word, and it is propriatory (EUR 250 per licence). It translates any file that can be opened in Microsoft Word, Excel and PowerPoint. It does not extract text, but instead it selectively allows the user to translate the portions of the file that needs to be translated.
d.    Trados (bilingual RTF)
The way Trados handles files, is the same as the way Wordfast does it. In fact, Trados and Wordfast can read each other’s files – that is, the bilingual RTF files. This is the file type that is most useful for new or rare file formats. Trados is proprietary
e.    Trados (TagEditor, TTX)
A newer method used by Trados is called TagEditor (it produces TTX files). TTX files are bilingual XML files that are opened translated in TagEditor, which is basically a user-friendly XML-viewer (but it can only view TTX XML files). In this sense TTX is similar to XLIFF or PO, because it is a bilingual file which is generated from the original file.

The cost of each CAT Tools is different, you may check directly in website.

2.    Free License (Free Use)
a.    Google Translate
Google Translate is a free multilingual statistical machine translation service provided by Google to translate text, speech, images, or real-time video from one language into another. It offers a web interface, mobile interfaces forAndroid and iOS, and an API that developers can use to build browser extensions, applications and other software.

b.    TransTools
TransTools is a collection of translation tools for Microsoft Word / Excel / Visio and Autodesk AutoCAD. With its help, you will be able to speed up translation of Visio, AutoCAD and Excel files, search in Excel glossaries, format Word and Excel documents before and after translation, make sure translation is fully completed, localize numbers, clean up badly formatted documents to make them easier to translate and to eliminate excessive tags in CAT software, check the quality of documents or worksheets, automate some CAT-related actions, maintain To-Do lists and do much more.


These are examples of CAT Tools, hope help you. thank you.
compiled from vary source
CAT Tools stand for Computer Assissted Translation Tools. CAT Tools contain no program based on machine translation and no ready-made bilingual dictionary. The "dictionary" is created by the translator with each translation and revision. Looking for a term with a CAT tool means searching through the previously created translation memory. The result of the search is not the equivalent term in the other language, but the text string in which the term occurs. The process is certainly slower and more complicated compared to machine translation, but the result is more interesting in the long run.
In simple way, CAT Tools or known as machine translation help the translator in translation.

For kind of Machine Translation, may klik next post about kinds of cat tools
Although Petr Trojanski invented "a machine for selecting and typing words when translating one language into another or several others simultaneously" in the thirties (this definition can be found in the patent granted to him in 1933), the history of CAT Tools actually begins in the Cold War years, when the information collected by the intelligence services had to be translated without delay. For this reason, considerable funds were allocated, for the first time, to translation technology. 

The first attempts with machine translation were made in specialized research centers and financed mainly by the USA and the USSR. The term Machine Translation (MT), was coined in 1947 by Warren Weaver who, in his famous memoranda, defended the feasibility of developing an automatic translation program. Systran (Acronym for System Translation) was established in those years and is still used by the European Commission. The American researcher Toma is the inventor of this system, which was used by the U.S. Air Force for gisting reports and documents written in Russian. Despite the initial enthusiasm and the belief that translators could be replaced by machines in the near future, the results did not meet the expectations, and the funds soon stopped flowing. It was at this time, between the late 60s and early 70s that a novel approach was suggested. The machine to be invented should not translate automatically, but rather facilitate the work of the human translator.

The first attempts consisted of terminology databases; the idea of translation memories, i.e., of a mechanism that forms the basis of today's computer-aided translation software, began to gain acceptance in the late 70s. TSS (Translation Support System), the first CAT tool developed by the U.S. company Alpnet, debuted in the mid-80s. However, the acceptance of this system was limited because of its high cost, which made it affordable only to large companies doing massive amounts of translation. IBM was one of the first purchasers of this system.

In the second half of the 80s, the Dutch company INK developed a system named "TextTools," inspired by TSS; Trados, a company established in 1984 in Stuttgart, became its official dealer in Germany.
When you are ready to spend time, money, and patience to familiarize yourself with the world of CAT tools, you'll wonder how you were able to live without them.

The 90s witnessed the expansion of the CAT market by making the software affordable to small businesses and freelance translators, but both the prices and the system requirements for use were still too high. The introduction of the Internet and the possibility for translators to exchange data worldwide required adaptation and the introduction of generally acceptable standards. Translation memories represented such a standard, and their adoption was soon followed by an exponential growth of the market for computer-aided translation software.


Organization Structure

DIRECTORATE GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION REPUBLIC OF INDONESIA

(Penerjemahan Struktur Organisasi Direktorat Jenderal Imigrasi)


DIREKTORAT JENDERAL IMIGRASI

DIRECTORATE GENERAL OF IMMIGRATION

Direktur Jenderal Imigrasi = Director General of Immigration

Sekretaris Jenderal Imigrasi = Secretary General of Immigration

Direktur Dokumen Perjalanan, Visa dan Fasilitas Keimigrasian = Director of Travel Documents, Visa and Immigration Facility

Direktur Izin Tinggal dan Status Keimigrasian = Director of Stay Permit and Status

Direktur Intelijen Keimigrasian = Director of Intelligence

Direktur Penyidikan dan Penindakan Keimigrasian = Director of Investigation and Prosecutions

Direktur Lintas Batas dan Kerja Sama Keimigrasian = Director of Cross Border and Cooperation

Direktur Sistem dan Teknologi Informasi Keimigrasian = Director of Immigration Information and Tecnology


 DIVISI KEIMIGRASIAN, KANTOR WILAYAH KEMENTERIAN HUKUM DAN HAM RI

IMMIGRATION DIVISION, REGIONAL OFFICE MINISTRY OF JUSTICE AND HUMAN RIGHTS RI

Kepala Divisi Keimigrasian = Head of Immigration Region

Kepala Bidang Lalu Lintas, Izin Tinggal dan Status Keimigrasian = Head Division of Immigration Documents Service, Stay Permit, and Status

Kepala Seksi Lalu Lintas =Chief Section of Immigration Documents Services

Kepala Seksi Izin Tinggal dan Status = Chief Section of Stay Permit

Kepala Bidang Intelijen, Penindakan dan Sistem Informasi Keimigrasian = Head Division of Immigration Intelligence, Prosecutions, and Information System

Kepala Seksi Intelijen dan Penindakan = Chief Section of Intelligence and Prosecutions

Kepala Seksi Informasi Keimigrasian = Chief Section of Immigration Information


KANTOR IMIGRASI = IMMIGRATION OFFICE

Kepala Kantor Imigrasi = Chief Immigration Office

Kepala Bidang = Head Division

Kepala Seksi = Chief Section

Kepala Subseksi = Chief Subsection


KANTOR IMIGRASI KELAS I KHUSUS

(CLASS I SPECIAL) IMMIGRATION OFFICE

Kepala kantor Imigrasi  Kelas I Khusus Ngurah Rai = Chief Immigration Office (Class I Special) of Ngurah Rai

Kepala Bagian Tata Usaha = Head Division of Administration Affairs

Kepala Subbagian Kepegawaian dan Umum= Head Subdivision of Human Resources & General Affairs

Kepala Subbagian Keuangan = Head Subdivision of Finance

Kepala Bidang Lalu Lintas dan Status Keimigrasian = Head Division of Immigration Documents Service and Immigration Status

Kepala Seksi Lalu Lintas Keimigrasian = Chief Section of Immigration Documents Service

Kepala Seksi Status Keimigrasian = Chief Section of Immigration Status

Kepala Bidang Pengawasan dan Penindakan = Head Division of Control and Prosecutions

Kepala Seksi Pengawasan = Chief Section of Immigration Control

Kepala Seksi Penindakan = Chief Section of Immigration Prosecutions

Kepala Bidang Informasi dan Sarana Keimigrasian = Head Division of Information and Immigration Facility

Kepala Seksi Informasi Keimigrasian = Chief Section of Immigration Information

Kepala Seksi Sarana Keimigrasian = Chief Section of Immigration Facility

Kepala Bidang Pendaratan dan Izin Masuk = Head Division of Landing and Entry Permits

Kepala Seksi Unit A/B/C = Chief Section of Unit A/B/C


KANTOR IMIGRASI KELAS I

CLASS I IMMIGRATION OFFICE

Kepala kantor Imigrasi  Kelas I Tangerang = Chief Immigration Office (Class I) of Tangerang

Kepala Subbagian Tata Usaha = Head Subdivision of Administration Affairs

Kepala Urusan Kepegawaian = Head of Human Resources

Kepala Urusan Keuangan = Head of Finance

Kepala Urusan Umum = Head of General Affairs


Kepala Seksi Informasi dan Sarana Komunikasi Keimigrasian = Chief Section of Information and Communication

Kepala Subseksi Informasi = Chief Subsection of Information

Kepala Subseksi Komunikasi = Chief Subsection of Communication

Kepala Seksi Lalu Lintas Keimigrasian = Chief Section of Immigration Documents Services and Cross Borders

Kepala Subseksi Lintas Batas = Chief Subsection of Cross Borders

Kepala Subseksi Perizinan = Chief Subsection of Immigration Documents Services

Kepala Seksi Status Keimigrasian = Chief Section of Immigration Status

Kepala Subseksi Penentuan Status = Chief Subsection of Status Formal Decision

Kepala Subseksi Penelaahan Status = Chief Subsection of Status Analysis

Kepala Seksi Pengawasan dan Penindakan Keimigrasian = Chief Section of Immigration Control and Prosecutions

Kepala Subseksi Pengawasan = Chief Subsection of Immigration Control

Kepala Subseksi Penindakan = Chief Subsection of Immigration Prosecutions


RUMAH DETENSI IMIGRASI

IMMIGRATION DETENTION HOUSE

Kepala Rumah Detensi Imigrasi = Chief of Immigration Detention House

INTERPRETATION

Gadamer, dikutipoleh John Sallis (2005:58):

“Thus every translation is already interpretation. One could say: the translator not only must intend the meaning and keep that intention in force, so that the meaning is preserved in the translation, but also must interpret the meaning, so as to be able to set it in the context of the other language; he must thus express it in the new language world in such a way as to establish it as a valid meaning within that world.”


Daniel Gile (2004:12):

“The main obvious differences in the processes of translation versus interpreting have to do with technical constraints. Translators have hours, days, weeks, or longer to deal with problems that arise, whereas interpreters only have seconds or minutes.”

“While translating, translators can also consult various sources of information, including printed and electronic reference texts, colleagues and experts in the relevant field. Interpreters cannot, except possibly for a glance at a glossary or a document they have in the interpreting booth in front of them while they are interpreting, at the risk of missing part of the incoming speech.”


Daniel Gile (2004:13):

“The product of interpretation is an oral (or signed) text, which is mentally processed by the listener as soon as it is heard (or seen), ..... The product of translation is a written text, which is read at the speed chosen by the reader.”


Brislin (1976:1):

“Interpretation refers to oral communication situation in which one person speaks in the source language, an interpreter processes this input and produces output in a second language, and a third person listens to the source language version.”


Phelan (2001:6):

Menyatakan bahwa pengalihbahasaan adalah penerjemahan secara lisan apa yang didengar ke dalam bahasa lain. Ia menambahkan bahwa alihbahasaan terfokus pada gagasan bukan pada kesepadanan pada tataran kata secara terpisah.


Seleskovitch (1976:92-93):

Menegaskan bahwa pengalihbahasaan yang dituturkan secara langsung, lebih ditekankan pada kesepadanan ide atau gagasan, daripada kesepadanan linguistiknya (frasa atau kata).


Weber (1984):

“Interpretation is the oral transposition of an orally delivered message at a conference or a meeting from a source language into a target language, performed in the presence of the participants.”


Edwards, dalam Kelly (2005):

“Interpretation means the unrehearsed transmitting of a spoken or signed message from one language to another.”


INTERPRETING

Shuttleworth dan Cowie (1997:83):

“Interpreting is a term used to refer to the oral translation of a spoken message or text.”


Jones (1996:6):

“The interpreter has first to listen to speaker, understand and analyze what is being said, and then resynthesize the speech in the appropriate form in a different language.”


Gentile, Ozolins, dan Vasilakakos (1996:5):

“Interpreting is the oral transfer of messages between speakers of different languages.”


Brislin (dalam Nababan 2003:114):

“Pengalihbahasaan menunjuk pada situasi komunikasi lisan dimana seseorang berbicara dalam bahasa sumber, alihbahasawan memproses informasi yang ditangkapnya dan kemudian mengalihbahasakan informasi itu ke dalam bahasa sasaran dan orang ketiga menyimak hasil proses itu.”


Arjona (1977:35):

Penerjemahan lisan sebagai “the oral translation of a message across a cultural/linguistic barrier.”

Edwards (dalam Kelly, 2005):

Menambahkan bahwa serorang interpreter tidak hanya mengalihbahasakan secara spontan, tetapi juga pengalihbahasaan dari bentuk lisan ke dalam bentuk isyarat.
Sering mengalami kesulitan dalam menerjemahkan vocabulary tentang Matematika, disini kami tulis ESP Matematika dasar. semoga bermanfaat;


28 % ; twenty-eight percent

10.3: ten point three

4/9; four ninths / four over nine

4 2 (2 =kuadrat); four squared

84; eight to the power of four

10 m x 12 m; ten meters by twelve meters

1 2/3: one and two thirds

9/13; nine thirteenths  / nine over thirteen

73 (3 = pangkat 3)= seven cubed

1,623,457; one million, six hundred and twenty-three thousand, four hundred and fifty-seven.

32o C; thirty two degrees Celsius

2 + 3 = 5; two plus three equals five

3 – 2 = 1; three minus two equals one

3 x 7 = 21; three times seven is twenty-one atau three sevens are twenty-one

6 : 2 = 3; six divided by two equals three

2x + 3y – z = 3z/4x; two x plus three y minus z equals three z divided by four x (three z over four x)


Secara sederhana bahasa Inggris penjumlahan, pengurangan, pembagian, perkalian dan lain-lainnya bisa di baca di bawah ini:


+;PLUS (and)

-;MINUS (take away)

X; MULTIPLIED BY (times)

:; DIVIDED BY

=; EQUALS (is)

.; POINT

%; PERCENT


BAHASA INGGRIS BILANGAN PECAHAN


1/8; ONE EIGHTS

1/5; ONE FIFTHS

1/4; ONE QUARTER

3/4; THREE QUARTERS

1/3; ONE THIRDS

2/3;TWO THIRDS

1/2;ONE HALF


Latihan dan contoh ;

123 + 456 - 234 = 345 (one hundred and twenty-three plus four hundred and fifty-six minus two hundred and thirty-four equals three hundred and forty-five)


2/3 x 9 : 3 = 2 (two thirds times nine divided by three equals two)


Sumber; Klik disini
CONSECUTIVE INTERPRETING

-    Debra Russell (2005) Consecutive interpretation is defined as the process of interpreting after the speaker or signer has completed one or more ideas in the source language and pauses while the interpreter transmits that information.
-    Seleskovitch (1978) describes consecutive interpretation as follows: In consecutive interpretation the interpreter does not start speaking until the original speaker has stopped. He therefore has time to analyze the message as a whole, which makes it easier for him to understand its meaning. The fact that he is there in the room, and that the speaker has stopped talking before he begins, means that he speaks to his listeners face to face and he actually becomes the speaker.
-    Consecutive interpretation: training in consecutive interpreting skills includes a variety of exercises, consecutive interpretation without notes, summarisation, sight translation and note- taking techniques, and cover texts from a diverse range of subject areas, written in a variety of styles and registers (Agata Opara, 2011:193)
-    Weber (1984) states that CI is used in conferences whenever a high degree of accuracy is required, and “when participants in a meeting find it useful to have additional time for reflection during interpretation”
-    Consecutive interpreting the interpreter translates whole sections of the speech with a timelag using notes (a special form of notation) after the original speaker has spoken. The number of consecutive interpreters required depends on the level of difficulty and the duration of the engagement. (Wieser & Keβler)
-    Santiago (2002) yang mengatakan bahwa "in its purest form, consecutive interpretation is a mode which the interpreter begins the interpretation of a complete message after the speaker has stopped producing the source utterance.


WHISPERED INTERPRETING
-    Whispered interpreting (also chuchotage) is a subcategory of simultaneous interpreting whispered into the listener’s ear for which no specialised equipment is required. (Costa, Hernani and Corpas Pastor, Gloria and Dur´an Mu˜noz, Isabel (2014).
-    Whispered interpreting is done by one interpreter for another individual to whom the translation is repeated in a whisper. Monica D. Reynoso (2006:10)
-    Whispering interpretation is a special type of simultaneous interpretation suitable for specific situations only. In this case the interpreter stands or sits just behind or beside the person being interpreted for and  whispers the interpretation of the speeches straight into his or her ear. As with simultaneous interpreting, at least 2 conference interpreters work in tandem, and, for acoustic reasons and in the interests of the other participants, only for one or at most two speakers at a time. (Wieser & Keβler)
-    Whispered Interpreting yang dikenal dalam bahasa Perancis sebagai Chuchotage kini umumnya dilakukan dengan cara berbicara pelan. bahkan alat bantu suara seperti mokrofon memungkinkan untuk digunakan. (Pochhaker, 2004:19)
-    Whispering Interpreting : This less formal method is used when the meeting is taking place in one language (English, for example) and one or two delegates speak a different language. The interpreter sits beside the delegate and whispers the interpretation to him/her during the meeting.
- Whispering interpretation is a special type of simultaneous interpretation suitable for specific situations only. In this case the interpreter stands or sits just behind or beside the person being interpreted for and whispers the interpretation of the speeches straight into his or her ear. As with simultaneous interpreting, at least 2 conference interpreters work in tandem, and, for acoustic reasons and in the interests of the other participants, only for one or at most two speakers at a time.

References:
http://www.medev.ac.uk/docs/cathy_jackson_consulting_interpretor/CJackson_Consulting_0605.pdf http://www.justicewomen.com/help_interpreter.html   
Interlingual Translation adalah:
1.    “Translation between two different languages” (Hatim & Munday, 2004: 343).
2.    “…an interpretation of verbal signs by means of some other [verbal] language” (Jacobson via Munday, 2009: 199).
3.    “…an interpretation of verbal signs by means of some other language” (Jacobson via Bassnett, 2002: 23).
4.    “…translation of verbal texts in one language into verbal texts in another language” (Milton, 2010: 4).
5.    “Interlingual translation or translation proper is an interpretation of verbal signs by means of some other language” (Jacobson, 1959: 233).
6.    “…an interpretation of verbal signs by means of some other language” (Jacobson via Snell-Hornby, 2006: 21).

Intersemiotic Translation adalah:
1.    “Translation between the written word and another  medium (e.g. music, art, photography)” (Hatim & Munday, 2004: 343).
2.    “…an interpretation of verbal signs by means of signs of non-verbal sign systems” (Jacobson via Munday, 2009: 201).
3.    “…an interpretation of verbal signs by means of signs of nonverbal sign systems” (Jacobson via Bassnett, 2002: 23).
4.    “…adapting works from one code to another, for example, from “page to stage”, from a novel to a film or a play” (Milton, 2010: 3).
5.    “Intersemiotic translation or transmutation is an interpretation of verbal signs by means of sign of nonverbal sign systems” (Jacobson, 1959: 233).
6.    “…an interpretation of verbal signs by means of signs of nonverbal sign systems” (Jacobson via Snell-Hornby, 2006: 21).

Daftar Pustaka
Bassnett, S. (2002). Translation Studies (3rd ed.). New York: Routledge.
Hatim, B. & Munday, J. (2004). Translation An Advanced Resource Book. Oxon: Routledge.
Jacobson, R. (1959). On Linguistic Aspects of Translation. Dalam R.A. Brower (Ed.), On Translation (pp.232-239). Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.
Milton, J. (2010). Adaptation. Dalam Y. Gambier & L. van Doorslaer (Eds.), Handbook of Translation Studies Volume 1 (pp.3-6). Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Co.
Munday, J. (2009). The Routledge Companion to Translation Studies. Oxon: Routledge.
Snell-Hornby, M. (2006). The Turn of Translation Studies, New paradigms or shifting viewpoints? Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Co.
Terkadang kita kesulitan dalam menuliskan data dalam penelitian penerjemahan, terutama dalam subtitle. dalam penyajian data kita dituntut untuk bisa menyajikan data dengan jelas. berikut contoh nya;
Misalnya dalam film pendek yang berjudul Naga Bonar Peduli Asap produksi Kaliwood Palangka Raya tahun 2015.

No    Data Bahasa Sumber    Data Bahasa Sasaran
1    Bung, Turunkan Tanganmu bung (NB ; 35’)    Bung, lower Your hands!
2    Kabut asap ini bahaya bung (NB ; 58’)    This haze is dangerous!
3    Atau karna mereka semua itu pakai roda empat (NB : 1;06’)    Or it is because they all use cars?

Dari contoh di atas, simple dalam menuliskan hal itu,
1. pertama sebutkan judul film dan produsen film serta tahun pembuatan film.
2. buatlah tabel yang terdiri atas No, data bahasa sumber dan bahasa sasaran
hal ini di buat secara ringkas agar mudah di pahami,
3. Isi data anda
4. dalam data sumber, sertakan catatkan juga percakapan siapa dan juga menit serta detik. misalnya : NB "Naga Bonar" : 1 ; 06' atau percakapan naga bonar menit 1 detik 06.

lebih jelas, lihat gambar di bawah ini;


Nah mudah bukan, semoga bermanfaat
Faktor-Faktor yang mempengaruhi dalam pergeseran makna menurut ullman
Dalam hubungannya dengan perubahan makna Ullmann (1972 :198-210) lewat Mansoer Pateda menyebutkan beberapa factor yang memudahkan terjadinya perubahan makna, berikut uraiannya:

a.    Faktor Kebahasaan

Perubahan makna karena factor kebahasaan berhubungan dengan fonologi, morfologi dan sintaksis. Misalnya kata sahaya yang pada mulanya bermakna budak tetapi karena kata ini berubah menjadi kata saya maka makna kata saya dihubungkan dengan orang pertama dan orang tidak menghubungkan dengan kata budak sehingga maknanya pun menjadi berubah.

b.    Faktor Sejarah

Faktor ini dapat dirinci menjadi factor objek, faktor institusi, faktor ide, dan faktor konsep ilmiah. Sebagai contoh factor objek, kata wanita yang sebenarnya berasal dari kata betina. Kata betina selalu dihubungkan dengan hewan. Kata betina dalam perkembangannya menjadi batina lalu fonem /b/ merubah menjadi /w/ sehingga menjadi wanita. Dan kata wanita ini berpadanan dengan kata perempuan dan sekarang orang tidak lagi menghubungkan kata wanita dengan kata hewan.

c.    Faktor Sosial

Perubahan makna yang disebabkan karena faktor sosial dihubungkan dengan perkembangan Makna kata dalam masyarakat. Misalnya kata gerombolan yang pada mulanya bermakna orang yang berkumpul atau kerumunan orang tapi kemudian kata ini tidak disukai lagi sebab selalu dihubungkan dengan pemberontak atau pengacau. Sebelum tahun 1945 orang dapat saja berkata “ Gerombolan laki-laki menuju pasar”, tetapi setelah tahun 1945 apalagi dengan munculnya pemberontak maka kata gerombolan enggan digunakan bahkan ditakuti.

d.    Faktor Psikologi

Faktor psikologi ini dapat dirinci lagi menjadi factor emosi dan kata-kata tabu. Sebagai contoh dari factor tabu misalnya penggunaan kata bangsat. Dahulu makna kata bangsat dihubungkan dengan binatang yang biasa menggigit jika kita duduk di kursi rotan karena binatang itu hidup di sela-sela anyaman rotan. Sekatang kalau orang marah lalu mengatakan, “ Hei bangsat, kenapa hanya duduk?” maka kata bangsat disini tidak lagi diartikan sebagai binatang kecil tapi manusia yang malas yang kelakuannya menyakitkan hati, sehingga ada perubahan makna pada kata tersebut.

e.    Pengaruh Bahasa Asing

Perubahan bahasa yang satu dengan yang lain tidak dapat dihindarkan. Hal itu disebabkan oleh interaksi antara sesame bangsa. Itu sebabnya pengaruh bahasa asing terhadap bahasa Indonesia juga tidak dapat dihindarkan. Pengaruh itu misalnya berasal dari bahasa Inggris yaitu pada kata keran yang berasal dari bahasa Inggris crank yang kemudian dalam bahasa Indonesia bermakna keran yang artinya pancuran air ledeng yang dapat dibuka dan ditutup. Tetapi kalimat “ Engkau masuk departemen dan dapat membuka keran untuk kemajuan daerah kita”. Makna keran tidak lagi katup penutup tapi lebih banyak dikaitkan dengan anggaran.

f.    Karena Kebutuhan Kata yang Baru
Telah diketahui bahwa manusia berkembang terus sesuai dengan kebutuhannya. Kebutuhan tersebut perlu nama atau kata barukarena bahasa adalah alat komunikasi. Kadang-kadang konsep baru itu belum ada lambangnya. Dengan kata lain manusia berhadapan dengan ketiadaan kata atau istilah baru yang mendukung pemikirannya. Kebutuhan tersebut bukan saja kata atau istilah tersebut belum ada tapi juga orang merasa bahwa perlu menciptakan kata atau istilah baru untuk suatu konsep hasil penemuan manusia. Misalnya karena bangsa Indonesia merasa kurang enak menggunakan kata saudara maka muncullah kata Anda. Kata saudara pada mulanya dihubungkan dengan orang yang sedarah dengan kita tapi kini kata saudara digunakan untuk menyebut siapa saja.


Referensi
Ullman, Stephen. (2007). Pengantar Semantik. Yogyakarta : Pustaka Pelajar.
Akhir - akhir warga ramai membicarakan isu mengenai kasus salah satu artis zaskia gotik atas kasus penghinaan pancasila. Nah ini ni, saya update lagi mengenai pancasila dan tersedia dalam English versi nya;

Pancasila asli versi Bahasa Indonesia :
1.    Ketuhanan Yang Maha Esa
2.    Kemanusiaan Yang Adil dan Beradab
3.    Persatuan Indonesia
4.    Kerakyatan Yang Dipimpin Oleh Hikmat Kebijaksanaan dalam Permusyawaratan / Perwakilan
5.     Keadilan Sosial Bagi Seluruh Rakyat Indonesia

Jika 5 dasar negera tersebut diterjemahkan dalam bahasa Inggris, maka Pancasila menjadi :
1.    Belief in the one and only God
2.    Just and civilized humanity
3.    The unity of Indonesia
4.    Democracy guided by the inner wisdom in the unanimity arising out of deliberations amongst representatives
5.    Social justice for the whole of the people of Indonesia

sumber : klik disini
Menurut Chaer (2007) mengungkapkan jenis pergeseran semantik yang terjadi didalam bahasa Indonesia yakni sebagai berikut;
a.    Perubahan Meluas
Perubahan yang meluas adalah gejala yang terjadi pada sebuah kata atau leksem yang pada mulanya hanya memiliki sebuah makna tetapi kemudian karena berbagai factor menjadi memiliki makna-makna yang lain. Proses perluasan makna ini dapat terjadi dalam kurun waktu yang relative singkat tetapi dapat juga dalam kurun waktu yang lama. Dan makna-makna lain yang terjadi sebagai hasil perluasan makna itu masih berada dalam lingkup poliseminya artinya masih ada hubungannya dengan makna asalnya. Seperti pada kata saudara yang dahulu hanya mempunyai satu makna yaitu seperut atau sekandungan sekarang berkembang menjadi bermakna lebih dari satu. Dan mempunyai makna lain yaitu siapa saja yang sepertalian darah. Lebih jauh lagi sekarang kata saudara bermakna siapapun orang tersebut dapat disebut saudara.
b.    Perubahan Menyempit
Perubahan menyempit merupakan suatu gejala yang terjadi pada sebuah kata yang pada mulanya mempunyai makna yang cukup luas namun kemudian berubah menjadi terbatas hanya memiliki sebuah makna saja. Kata sarjana yang pada mulanya berarti orang pandai atau cendekiawan dan sekarang kata itu hanya memiliki sebuah makna saja yaitu orang yang lulus dari perguruan tinggi. Sehingga sepandai apapun seseorang sebagai hasil dari belajar sendiri, kalau bukan tamatan perguruan tinggi maka tidak bisa disebut sebagai sarjana. Sebaliknya serendah berapapun indeks prestasi seseorang kalau dia sudah lulus dari perguruan tinggi dia akan disebut sebagai sarjana.
c.    Perubahan Total
Perubahan total yaitu suatu makna sebuah kata yang berubah total atau berubah sama sekali dari makna asalnya. Memang ada kemungkinan makna yang dimiliki sekarang masih ada sangkut pautnya dengan makna asal tapi keterkaitannya ini tampaknya sudah jauh sekali. Sebagai contoh kata seni yang mulanya bermakna air seni atau kencing sekarang digunakan sebagai istilah untuk sebuah karya atau ciptaan yang bernilai halus seperti seni lukis, seni tari, seni suara.
d.    Penghalusan (ufemia)
Penghalusan dalam perubahan makna ini maksudnya adalah suatu gejala ditampilkannya kata-kata atau bentuk-bentuk yang dianggap memiliki makna yang lebih halus atau lebih sopan daripada yang akan digantikan. Kecenderungan untuk menghaluskan makna kata tampaknya merupakan gejala umum dalam masyarakat bahasa Indonesia. Misalnya kata penjara diganti dengan istilah lembaga pemasyarakatan, pemecatan diganti dengan istilah pemutusan hubungan kerja, babu diganti dengan istilah pembantu rumah tangga.
e.    Pengasaran (disfemia)
Pengasaran yang dimaksud adalah suatu usaha untuk mengganti kata yang maknanya halus atau bermakna biasa menjadi kata yang maknanya kasar. Usaha atau gejala pengasaran ini biasanya dilakukan oleh orang dalam situasi yang tidak ramah atau dalam keadaan jengkel. Seperti pada kata menjebloskan untuk menggantikan kata memasukkan, kata mendepak untuk menggantikan kata mengeluarkan dan sebagainya.







Referensi

Abdul, Chaer,. (2007). Linguistik Umum. Jakarta : Rineka Cipta

Vinay dan Darbelnet dalam Tanjung (2015) menjelaskan dua macam strategi penerjemahan, yakni langsung dan tidak langsung.
a.    Langsung
1)    Borrowing yakni mengambil istilah dari BSu kedalam BSa tanpa perubahan bentuk formal dan semantic. Contohnya pemertahanan budaya asli teks BSu seperti pada nama makanan.
2)    Calque yaitu  kata dari teks BSu dipakai dalam teks BSa dengan mengalami penyesuaian ejaan atau fonem. Contohnya kata communication yang diterjemahkan menjadi komunikasi.
3)    Literal translation yaitu penerjemahan kata perkata. Contohnya I have a book menjadi saya memiliki satu buah buku.

b.    Tidak langsung
1)    Transposisi, merupakan penerjemahan dengan mengubah suatu bagian wacana tanpa mengubah makna.
2)    Modulasi, yakni pengubahan unsur semantik dan sudut pandang yang di utamakan dalam teks BSu.
3)    Ekuivalensi, yakni merujuk pada sebuah ujaran yang ditujukan kepada konteks yang sama tapi dengan menggunakan cara yang berbeda.
4)    Adaptasi yakni penyesuaian yang digunakan dalam penerjemahan karna dalam BSu tidak terdapat kata yang sesuai dengan maknanya dalam BSu.



Referensi
Tanjung, Sufriati. (2015). Penilaian Penerjemahan  Jerman – Indonesia. Yogyakarta : Kanwa Publisher